Evening in Colonial Williamsburg

A walk around the historic area on a beautiful fall evening. More about the buildings later.

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Colonial Williamsburg

Dear Readers,

I am sorry for the long absence. I have a backlog of posts to write but here are some from Colonial Williamsburg, a living history museum dedicated to telling the story of the town of Williamsburg, Virginia in the 18th century.

I’ll take you on a walk through the historic area as the sun sets.

First stop is Great Hopes Plantation. Great Hopes Plantation, a recreated farm of the 1750s-1770s. The landscape, buildings, animals, and the work and lifestyles of its inhabitants are based on extensive research into small farms in three neighboring counties.

Great Hopes Plantation windmill. Great Hopes is a middling family farm. Windmills were common in early Virginia. Mills like this one were used to grind corn into cornmeal for local farms and plantations. A “Post Mill” contained machinery in a house that is mounted on a central, vertical post. The entire mill house is capable of rotating on the central post so the sails can face the wind. Windmills like this one require 15 mile-per-hour wind to operate and were often built on the high ground near rivers and the coast. (recreation 1957, moved 2010, restored 2015)


A walk past the plantation and next to the river reveals a family of American Milking Devons, a descendant of the Red Devon breed native to Devonshire, England. (I saw those at Plimoth Plantation) .This rare, heritage breed is a beautiful red color and their milk has a high butterfat content, making these cows popular in colonial times for butter and cheese.


The calf is weaning. It eats grass but is still nursing. This was a very sweet sight and a nice break from the hectic pace of modern life. I love how museums like Colonial Williamsburg and preserving these old breeds of livestock.


Nantucket Whaling Museum- Hawden & Barney

In the mid-19th-century, the Nantucket firm of Hawden & Barney was one of the leading whale oil candle manufacturers in the United States until the decline of the whaling industry.

The Building

In 1846 a fire destroyed much of downtown Nantucket including Robert Mitchell and Sons candleworks. A year later the firm built a new candle factory on the same site. In 1848 the Mitchells sold the building to whale-oil merchants William Hawden and Nathaniel Barney who operated the business on a limited scale. The decline of the whaling industry forced the company to use the brick building as a warehouse. In the 1870s, Nathaniel Barney’s son converted it to office space for the New England Steamship Company.


By 1919, the building was used as an antiques shop. It was purchased by the Nantucket Historical Association in the 1920s to use as a museum for the exhibit of the NHA’s whaling collection.


The Whaling Museum building 


Nantucket Historical Association in the old Hawden & Barney factory

In 2004 the museum was renovated and some of the space is dedicated to showcasing 19th-century Nantucket and what the building looked like when Hawden & Barney operated there.

Hawden & Barney


William Hawden (1791-1862), originally a silversmith from Newport, Rhode Island, was a Nantucket transplant who became a prominent whale oil candle manufacturer.


William Hawden and family in 1860

Hawden married the descendant of one of Nantucket’s first families, Eunice Starbuck, in 1822. Seven years after his marriage he established the firm of Hawden & Barney with his cousin/brother-in-law Nathaniel Barney.

Nathaniel Barney (1792-1869) is best known to history for his activism in the anti-slavery movement. He and his wife Eliza shared a home with their Hawden family at 100 Main Street for many years.

William Hawden became extremely wealthy from the whale oil manufacturing business. He lived with his family in this grand Greek-Revival style mansion (now a museum) at 96 Main Street.


Hawden House

By 1850 the firm employed 12 workers in three buildings (the museum building and two outbuildings which no longer stand). The laborers were paid $27.50 a month ($800 in 21st-century currency).

They produced 4000 boxes of spermaceti candles, as well as 450,000 gallons of refined sperm whale oil. The worth of this oil? $300,000 1850s dollars, approximately $9 million in today’s dollars.

The firm’s ship, the Alpha, made six whaling voyages between 1834-1859. The crews also purchased oil from other ships to bring home to Nantucket.

The sign features information about two of the known workers. One worker, William M. Eldridge (1826-1912) spent his childhood and younger adult years working in candle factories before become a sea captain. He later retired to a farm on his native Nantucket.

The profits made from whale oil refining were staggering. In the mid-19th-century, at the peak of the whaling industry, headmatter was worth an average of 90 cents a gallon or $28 per barrel. This one barrel produced:

$23.60 of winter oil ($1.00/gallon)
$2.40 of spring oil (80 cents/gallon)
$1.20 of summer oil (80 cents/gallon) for a total of $27.20

Candles were worth 30 cents per pound or $8.10 total, equaling $35.30 for a profit of $7.30 per barrel or 26%! (More than the workers were paid per month).

Want to learn more about the 19th-century whaling industry? Visit the Nantucket Whaling Museum. You won’t be disappointed.

If you can’t travel there, the Smithsonian National Museum of American History has some whaling industry ephemera online.




Nantucket Whaling Museum

mural of Nantucket

Mural of Nantucket during the heyday of the whaling industry in the mid-19th-century

My next two posts will share more on the history of the Nantucket whaling industry and the museum building.

In my previous post you can follow the link to the New Bedford Whaling Museum’s excellent and gruesome description of how whales were captured and processed. Unfortunately I missed the presentation in Nantucket and did not have time to stay for the next. Having read The True Confessions of Charlotte Doyle, I have a good idea of what happened and I’d rather not listen to that kind of information anyway.

Whalers hunted whales for spermaceti, a waxy substance from the large cavity in the sperm whale’s head. Spermaceti was used in making candles, machine grease, and other lighting. In Nantucket, the firm of Hawden & Barney was the leading refinery and manufacturer of spermaceti candles. They occupied the building that is now the museum.

Spermaceti oil

Spermaceti oil

Spermaceti cake

Spermaceti cake

This cake of refined spermaceti is an example of the main product of the oil refining process of the mid-19th-century. The blocks were molded in the spring, stored until softened in the summer heat, then ground into meal and pressed to remove the last drops of the oil remaining in them. This resulted in pure spermaceti that could then be molded into candles.

candle molds

Candle Molds and box stencils

Spermaceti candles were the end product of the refining process. The candles were made by mixing the refined spermaceti with a small amount of beeswax placed into block molds to harden.

Spermaceti oil and candle molds

Spermaceti oil and candle molds

A skilled candle maker would then melt the blocks until liquid and then pour into special molds. The candles were left to cool and then packed into boxes with candle paper. The boxes were branded or stenciled to indicate the manufacturer, the size of the candles and other important information.

Spermaceti candles and oil lamps 

Spermaceti candles and oil lamps

Spermaceti candles were considered the finest in the world.

Read on to learn more about the firm of Hawden & Barney.

Nantucket Whaling Museum

A long overdue post on the rest of the Nantucket Whaling Museum.

After tearing myself away from the archive exhibit, I browsed a bit more of the museum and learned more about the whaling industry in Nantucket.

The museum had on display many of the treasures the men brought home from far flung places. They were gifted objects of cultural significance by the natives of places they visited and also purchased fine goods to be sent or carried home with them.


Chinese fan 1821, pierced ivory, painted silk

This Chinese fan, dating to 1821, was purchased by Captain Eliakim Gardner of Baltimore, Maryland, captain of the ship Orozimbo. Captain Gardner presented the fan to his wife Pamela who passed it on to her granddaughter Mary Myrick Gardner. It was passed down through the years and in 1887 the fan was given as a wedding gift to Florence Folger when she married William A. Webster. The scene on the fan depicts a European couple. The fan is also decorated with gold inlay.

Sea captains also commissioned china patterns for their wives. This pattern, famille rose, uses overglaze enamels to create detailed depictions of the human form, in this case, a woman and child. This pattern is an example of a hybrid pattern known as “Madarin.”


Famille Rose Punch Bowl c. 1755-1770 

The Famille Rose punch bowl was passed down through three generations of the Starbuck family. It must have been a cherished possession.


“Fitzhugh” Dinner Service c. 1810

This blurry  photo depicts the “Fitzhugh” dinner service belonging to Gideon Swain (1776-1848). His initials are featured in the medallion in the center. The pattern comes from a design originally ordered by a Thomas Fitzhugh, Captain in the East India Company in 1780. The English firm Spode later copied the pattern. The design became more elaborate as the 19th-century advanced and was popular well into the 20th-century as well.


The Mars and the Minerva

The sign accompanying this tea service tells the story of Captain Uriah Swain (1754-1810), the Nantucket captain who initiated trade between China and Nantucket in 1800. The Mars returned to Nantucket with a cargo of tea and other Chinese goods and souvenirs in exchange for sealskins. In 1801, Captain Mayhew Folger sailed to Canton in the Minerva bringing back this beautiful porcelain tea service decorated with the popular American Seal design. This design features the Federal Eagle. A better image of the design can be seen at Northeast Auctions .

There were many examples of porcelain from the China trade era including creamware jugs custom made with the ship’s flag or family name painted in the design. They were made in Liverpool, England for export.

I will return with more history of Nantucket’s whaling industry. As a preview, you can read up on the gruesome process of capturing a whale and how whales were processed before viewing my post on the end products and Nantucket’s role in producing spermaceti candles and other goods from whales and for the elite citizens involved in the whaling industry,

Nantucket Whaling Museum

This post is long overdue but worth the wait!

The seafaring Pinkhams sign

The seafaring Pinkhams

Back in June, I visited the island of Nantucket off the coast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. On my last day I popped in the whaling museum for a short time. I was immediately captivated by an exhibit of letters from their archive! The museum recently acquired a collection of letters from a Nantucket whaling family. They have an excellent exhibit, displaying some of the letters, along with select transcripts (on panels), photographs and artifacts from the extended Pinkham family in an exhibit titled “Dear Absent Ones: The Seafaring Pinkhams.” This exhibit shared the human side of an island family at sea and waiting behind at home.

In the first part of the nineteenth century, Nantucket was at the forefront of the whaling industry. Ships sailed off to the Pacific in search of the mighty sperm whale returning with barrels full of spermaceti to turn into oil, candles and other products that would earn a fortune for those involved in the business.

Seth Pinkham letter

A long letter from a loving husband and father. I wonder if the water stains are sea water or happened later?

Captain Seth Pinkham (1786-1844), the family patriarch, was an early whaling captain, completing three voyages between 1815-1823 before retirement. He and his wife Mary (Brrown) Pinkham brought up a second generation of seagoing Pinkhams. After business failures, Captain Seth Pinkham returned to the sea, only to die at sea in 1844. Seth, Jr., age 9, most likely was eager to join his father at sea, but his mother put her foot down and insisted he was too young.

Seth Pinkham letter

Seth Pinkham letter -searching for whales

Captain Pinkham’s letters reveal a family man who missed his family but made up for his absence by writing as many letters as he was able to get home. These letters are full of long-winded advice to his son, such as “In order to be good children, good husbands, good fathers and good citizens, we must strive to be useful . . . I tell you these things while you are young for youth is the time to form the man.” (1841) The other letters continue in the same vein, encouraging thoughtful study, sobriety, enterprise and exemplary deportment in all endeavors.

He had strong opinions on laziness.

Seth Pinkham letter

“Never one to be lazy, Pinkham shares his strong opinion about occupying one’s time with useful tasks only.”

Seth Pinkham letter

Seth Pinkham, a self-professed Jeffersonian, held strong opinions about the role of government and citizens’ part in directing their own affairs. He emphasized each person’s duty to stay informed and reason for himself.

Other artifacts on display include a lady’s writing desk made for Seth Pinkham c. 1810. The desk is made from Mahogany with white pine and birch inlays. This is a very generous gift to Mary from her loving husband.

Mahogany and lightwood inlaid ladies' desk

Mahogany and lightwood inlaid ladies’ desk

The second generation of seagoing Pinkhams included Malvina Pinkham Marshall (1820-1885), the only one of Captain Seth and Mary’s 6 children to go on a whaling voyage. At seven months pregnant, she joined her husband, Joseph Marshall (1811-1879), on board the Sea Queen in 1851. Joseph Marshall began his whaling career at age 17 in 1821. Rising through the ranks quickly, he became first mate in 1841. In 1846 he married his second wife, Malvina Marshall, and took command of a ship the following year.

Malvina Marshall gave birth to her daughter Helen (1851-1939) while the ship was docked in the Azores. The Azorean women presented Malvina with gifts for her new baby. The Marshall family continued to sail throughout the Pacific for the next eight years before Joseph retired to Nantucket.

Helen Marshall

Helen Marshall, daughter of Joseph and Malvina (Pinkham) Marshall, born at sea.

The Marshalls kept photographs of her friends and family to remember them by. H

Photos from the 1860s and 70s compiled by Helen Marshall.

Photos from the 1860s and 70s compiled by Helen Marshall. The many pictures of her little cousins were gifts to her mother from her uncle Seth Pinkham, Jr. in San Francisco. The small children on the bottom are Helen’s nieces and nephews by her much older half brother.

They have some older artifacts from the women on the homefront. Women on Nantucket supported each other through ties of friendship, kinship and community. The sign says “Running a household, caring for children, and maintaining a strict economy were necessary duties complicated by the uncertainty of the length and success of voyages and the difficulties of communication.”

Mary Brown's Sampler 1800

Mary Brown’s Sampler 1800

1850 wool blanket

Mary Brown Pinkham’s wool blanket, passed down to her granddaughter Helen Marshall

This is a wonderful exhibit that combines letters from the archive with museum artifacts to paint a more detailed portrait of a Nantucket seagoing family. The exhibit text does a great job of explaining the context of the items in terms of the time period and the whaling industry. It was wonderful to learn about a real life whaling family and more about the personal life of a whaling captain.

The rest of the part of the museum I saw focused on the whales and the spermaceti. (More on that in the next post).

Maria Mitchell Association


Maria Mitchell Birthplace

While in Nantucket I visited the Maria Mitchell Association, a complex of four museums. There’s the natural science museum in the main building. This features animals (mostly dead) found on or near the local beaches. They have dolphin skeletons, butterflies, moths, taxidermy animals, live snakes and turtles and a discovery center.

The main focus of my visit was the Maria Mitchell birthplace. A typical Quaker house built in 1790, this house is the birthplace of America’s first female astronomer.


Maria Mitchell Birthplace sign

The Mitchells acquired the home shortly before Maria’s birth in 1818. It is typical Nantucket architecture. It has an off-center front door and a small window above to let light in the hall when the door was closed. On the roof is a roof walk, which was actually for putting out chimney fires and fires on the roof. Could they have used it for other purposes? Yes, but that isn’t what it was built for.

William Mitchell had to add a new kitchen to the old house to make the house bigger. The new kitchen has a back staircase, a warming alcove and plaster walls painted to look like wood. The front room features the most exciting and unique artifact in the house-Maria’s telescope through which she discovered a comet. The front entryway has an amazing mural of “The Great Moon Hoax of 1835.” (Fake news is obviously not an Internet age problem).

Maria Mitchell was educated at a young ladies seminary and also taught by her father, an astronomer who rated chronometers for use by the Nantucket whaling fleet in celestial navigation. His Quaker belief in equality led him to educate his daughter in subjects normally taught to boys. At the age of 12, Maria assisted her father in calculating the position of their home by observing a solar eclipse. By 14 she trusted to calculate navigational computations for sailors leaving on whaling journeys.

Maria’s interest in science extended to teaching as well. After she finished her own formal education, she opened a school for girls to train them in science and mathematics- like an early STEM school.

At the age of 18 she became the first librarian of the Nantucket Atheneum, reading everything she could after hours. She worked there from 1836-1858.


Nantucket Atheneum

Her greatest accomplishment was yet to come. Avoiding a party at her family’s apartment above the bank one night in 1847, Maria went up to the roof to observe the sky through her father’s two-inch telescope. She lucked out that night, October 1, and discovered a comet! She was not only the first woman to discover a comet, she was the first in America to record her sighting.


Pacific National Bank

Unfortunately, the next day there was a storm and ships couldn’t leave the island so the observations she sent off to Europe were delayed, allowing an Italian man to gain credit for the discovery. However, Maria prevailed and her careful notes revealed she sighted the comet earlier than the Italian. The King of Denmark awarded Maria Mitchell of Nantucket an International gold medal.

Maria then skyrocketed (pun intended) to fame.  “Miss Mitchell’s Comet,” as it became known, was featured in Elias Loomis’ The Recent Progress of Astronomy.


Recent Progress in Astronomy

Maria became the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1848, the only woman recognized for almost 100 years thereafter. She was also elected to the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Philosophical Society and earned an annual salary from The U.S. Coastal Survey ($300/year) as a celestial observer. [1] She was also able to meet other women involved in the sciences on a Grand Tour of Europe in the 1850s.

Though Maria ultimately broke with the Quaker meeting, she retained some Quaker philosophies, such as equality and abolitionist principles. She always dressed in black silk, refusing to wear cotton as it was grown by slaves.

After her mother’s death, Maria was invited by Matthew Vassar to be the first female professor at his new women’s college, where she rebelled against the strict rule prohibiting women from going out at night. Her students adored her and even persuaded her to pose for a portrait. (Maria believed her plain looks would not appear to advantage on canvas or in photos). She did insist on appearing as she normally did, in her Quakerish black silk dress and plain hairstyle.

Maria Mitchell became involved in the emerging women’s rights movement, with fellow Nantucket Quaker Lucretia Mott, meeting the luminaries of the day and holding meetings in her observatory. Her famous friends later donated money to save her Vassar observatory. [2]

Though Maria Mitchell died in 1889, a year after her retirement from teaching, her legacy lives on. The Maria Mitchell Association also operates an observatory. Their website states “since 1908, the Observatory has been the site of research, lectures, and other programs . . .” [3]  That is smaller than the house!


Normally they start outside but since it was rainy and overcast, we couldn’t see anything in the sky. We did look at a scale model to see how far the planets are in the solar system. That was very helpful. I don’t really understand or care for astronomy so much of it was lost on me. Inside there is a little museum where visitors can see Maria Mitchell’s influence on culture and science. She has asteroid and a crater named after her, among other things. I really liked it when they mentioned there is an archive. That would be fun to look at.

More on the history of Nantucket in my next post.

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