Nantucket Whaling Museum

A long overdue post on the rest of the Nantucket Whaling Museum.

After tearing myself away from the archive exhibit, I browsed a bit more of the museum and learned more about the whaling industry in Nantucket.

The museum had on display many of the treasures the men brought home from far flung places. They were gifted objects of cultural significance by the natives of places they visited and also purchased fine goods to be sent or carried home with them.

ChineseFan

Chinese fan 1821, pierced ivory, painted silk

This Chinese fan, dating to 1821, was purchased by Captain Eliakim Gardner of Baltimore, Maryland, captain of the ship Orozimbo. Captain Gardner presented the fan to his wife Pamela who passed it on to her granddaughter Mary Myrick Gardner. It was passed down through the years and in 1887 the fan was given as a wedding gift to Florence Folger when she married William A. Webster. The scene on the fan depicts a European couple. The fan is also decorated with gold inlay.

Sea captains also commissioned china patterns for their wives. This pattern, famille rose, uses overglaze enamels to create detailed depictions of the human form, in this case, a woman and child. This pattern is an example of a hybrid pattern known as “Madarin.”

FamilleRosePunchBowl

Famille Rose Punch Bowl c. 1755-1770 

The Famille Rose punch bowl was passed down through three generations of the Starbuck family. It must have been a cherished possession.

FitzhughDinnerService

“Fitzhugh” Dinner Service c. 1810

This blurry  photo depicts the “Fitzhugh” dinner service belonging to Gideon Swain (1776-1848). His initials are featured in the medallion in the center. The pattern comes from a design originally ordered by a Thomas Fitzhugh, Captain in the East India Company in 1780. The English firm Spode later copied the pattern. The design became more elaborate as the 19th-century advanced and was popular well into the 20th-century as well.

MarsMinervadinnerware

The Mars and the Minerva

The sign accompanying this tea service tells the story of Captain Uriah Swain (1754-1810), the Nantucket captain who initiated trade between China and Nantucket in 1800. The Mars returned to Nantucket with a cargo of tea and other Chinese goods and souvenirs in exchange for sealskins. In 1801, Captain Mayhew Folger sailed to Canton in the Minerva bringing back this beautiful porcelain tea service decorated with the popular American Seal design. This design features the Federal Eagle. A better image of the design can be seen at Northeast Auctions .

There were many examples of porcelain from the China trade era including creamware jugs custom made with the ship’s flag or family name painted in the design. They were made in Liverpool, England for export.

I will return with more history of Nantucket’s whaling industry. As a preview, you can read up on the gruesome process of capturing a whale and how whales were processed before viewing my post on the end products and Nantucket’s role in producing spermaceti candles and other goods from whales and for the elite citizens involved in the whaling industry,

Advertisements

Maria Mitchell Association

MitchellHouse

Maria Mitchell Birthplace

While in Nantucket I visited the Maria Mitchell Association, a complex of four museums. There’s the natural science museum in the main building. This features animals (mostly dead) found on or near the local beaches. They have dolphin skeletons, butterflies, moths, taxidermy animals, live snakes and turtles and a discovery center.

The main focus of my visit was the Maria Mitchell birthplace. A typical Quaker house built in 1790, this house is the birthplace of America’s first female astronomer.

MariaMitchellHouse

Maria Mitchell Birthplace sign

The Mitchells acquired the home shortly before Maria’s birth in 1818. It is typical Nantucket architecture. It has an off-center front door and a small window above to let light in the hall when the door was closed. On the roof is a roof walk, which was actually for putting out chimney fires and fires on the roof. Could they have used it for other purposes? Yes, but that isn’t what it was built for.

William Mitchell had to add a new kitchen to the old house to make the house bigger. The new kitchen has a back staircase, a warming alcove and plaster walls painted to look like wood. The front room features the most exciting and unique artifact in the house-Maria’s telescope through which she discovered a comet. The front entryway has an amazing mural of “The Great Moon Hoax of 1835.” (Fake news is obviously not an Internet age problem).

Maria Mitchell was educated at a young ladies seminary and also taught by her father, an astronomer who rated chronometers for use by the Nantucket whaling fleet in celestial navigation. His Quaker belief in equality led him to educate his daughter in subjects normally taught to boys. At the age of 12, Maria assisted her father in calculating the position of their home by observing a solar eclipse. By 14 she trusted to calculate navigational computations for sailors leaving on whaling journeys.

Maria’s interest in science extended to teaching as well. After she finished her own formal education, she opened a school for girls to train them in science and mathematics- like an early STEM school.

At the age of 18 she became the first librarian of the Nantucket Atheneum, reading everything she could after hours. She worked there from 1836-1858.

HawdenHouse

Nantucket Atheneum

Her greatest accomplishment was yet to come. Avoiding a party at her family’s apartment above the bank one night in 1847, Maria went up to the roof to observe the sky through her father’s two-inch telescope. She lucked out that night, October 1, and discovered a comet! She was not only the first woman to discover a comet, she was the first in America to record her sighting.

PacificNationalBank

Pacific National Bank

Unfortunately, the next day there was a storm and ships couldn’t leave the island so the observations she sent off to Europe were delayed, allowing an Italian man to gain credit for the discovery. However, Maria prevailed and her careful notes revealed she sighted the comet earlier than the Italian. The King of Denmark awarded Maria Mitchell of Nantucket an International gold medal.

Maria then skyrocketed (pun intended) to fame.  “Miss Mitchell’s Comet,” as it became known, was featured in Elias Loomis’ The Recent Progress of Astronomy.

recentprogressofastronomy

Recent Progress in Astronomy

Maria became the first woman elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1848, the only woman recognized for almost 100 years thereafter. She was also elected to the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Philosophical Society and earned an annual salary from The U.S. Coastal Survey ($300/year) as a celestial observer. [1] She was also able to meet other women involved in the sciences on a Grand Tour of Europe in the 1850s.

Though Maria ultimately broke with the Quaker meeting, she retained some Quaker philosophies, such as equality and abolitionist principles. She always dressed in black silk, refusing to wear cotton as it was grown by slaves.

After her mother’s death, Maria was invited by Matthew Vassar to be the first female professor at his new women’s college, where she rebelled against the strict rule prohibiting women from going out at night. Her students adored her and even persuaded her to pose for a portrait. (Maria believed her plain looks would not appear to advantage on canvas or in photos). She did insist on appearing as she normally did, in her Quakerish black silk dress and plain hairstyle.

Maria Mitchell became involved in the emerging women’s rights movement, with fellow Nantucket Quaker Lucretia Mott, meeting the luminaries of the day and holding meetings in her observatory. Her famous friends later donated money to save her Vassar observatory. [2]

Though Maria Mitchell died in 1889, a year after her retirement from teaching, her legacy lives on. The Maria Mitchell Association also operates an observatory. Their website states “since 1908, the Observatory has been the site of research, lectures, and other programs . . .” [3]  That is smaller than the house!

MariaMitchellobservatory2

Normally they start outside but since it was rainy and overcast, we couldn’t see anything in the sky. We did look at a scale model to see how far the planets are in the solar system. That was very helpful. I don’t really understand or care for astronomy so much of it was lost on me. Inside there is a little museum where visitors can see Maria Mitchell’s influence on culture and science. She has asteroid and a crater named after her, among other things. I really liked it when they mentioned there is an archive. That would be fun to look at.

More on the history of Nantucket in my next post.

Continue reading

Welcome

Image

Welcome!

Welcome to my new blog about some interesting things I have found in libraries, archives and museums. I’m a recent library school graduate and historian so I spend a lot of time in the above mentioned places! I’m mostly an early American historian or 18th, 19th and early 20th century history buff. I live in New England where there are a lot of great museums and libraries and I love visiting museums when I travel.